Terrorism and Counterterrorism Studies

Terrorism and Counterterrorism Studies
  • Author : Edwin Bakker
  • Publisher :
  • Pages : 237
  • Relase : 2015
  • ISBN : 9087282214

Terrorism and Counterterrorism Studies Book Review:

Terrorism has arguably been one of the defining factors of our age. In many parts of the world, it has in recent times been one of the most important threats to peace, security and stability. But what does this exactly mean? What is the nature of this threat? Who or what is threatened, how, by whom and why? What can be done about it or how can we at least limit the impact of terrorism and make sure that terrorists do not make headlines and manage to scare us? These are just a handful of questions that will be addressed in this handbook that consists of three parts. First it focuses on the essence of terrorism as an instrument to achieve certain goals. The second part provides an overview of the state of (counter) terrorism studies. Since ‘9/11’ terrorism studies have grown exponentially, reflecting the rise in perceived threats. What theories, assumptions and conventional wisdom has it produced that could be of help in understanding terrorism and dealing with it? The final part looks into the implications and possibilities for policy making.

Social Networks, Terrorism and Counter-terrorism

Social Networks, Terrorism and Counter-terrorism
  • Author : Martin Bouchard
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Pages : 256
  • Relase : 2015-06-05
  • ISBN : 9781317573265

Social Networks, Terrorism and Counter-terrorism Book Review:

This book examines two key themes in terrorism studies, the radicalization process and counter-terrorism policies, through the lens of social networks. The book aims to show that networks should be at the forefront not only when analysing terrorists, but also when assessing the responses to their actions. The volume makes a unique contribution by addressing two relatively new themes for terrorism studies. First it puts social relations and cooperation issues at the forefront – an approach often identified as crucial to future breakthroughs in the field. Second, many contributions tackle the role of the Internet in the process of radicalization and in recruitment more generally, a highly debated topic in the field today. In addition, the book provides a valuable mix of review essays, critical essays, and original empirical studies. This balanced approach is also found in the topics covered by the authors, as well as their academic disciplines, which include sociology, computer science, geography, history, engineering, and criminology as well as political science. Many of the true advances in terrorism studies depend on the successful collaboration of multi-disciplinary teams, each with a different set of methodological and conceptual tools. This volume reflects the newfound diversity in this field and is a true product of its time. This book will be of much interest to students of terrorism studies, social networks, security studies, sociology, criminology and international relations in general.

Critical Methods in Terrorism Studies

Critical Methods in Terrorism Studies
  • Author : Priya Dixit,Jacob L. Stump
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Pages : 216
  • Relase : 2015-06-26
  • ISBN : 9781317692942

Critical Methods in Terrorism Studies Book Review:

This book shows how to use a range of critical approaches to conduct research on terrorism. Featuring the work of researchers who have already utilized these methods to study terrorism, it includes a diverse range of critical methodological approaches – including discourse analysis, feminist, postcolonial, ethnographic, critical theory, and visual analysis of terrorism. The main objectives of the book are to assist researchers in adopting and applying various critical approaches to the study of terrorism. This goal is achieved by bringing together a number of different scholars working on the topic of terrorism from a range of non-variables-based approaches. Their individual chapters discuss explicitly the research methods used and methodological commitments made by the authors, while also illustrating the application of their particular critical perspective to the topic of terrorism. The authors of each chapter will discuss (1) why they chose their specific critical method; (2) how they justified their methodological stance; (3) how they conduct their research; (4) and, finally, an example of the research. This book will be essential reading for students of terrorism studies and critical terrorism studies, and highly recommended for students of political violence, security studies and IR.

Terrorism and Counterterrorism

Terrorism and Counterterrorism
  • Author : Brigitte L Nacos
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Pages : 352
  • Relase : 2015-07-22
  • ISBN : 9781317343646

Terrorism and Counterterrorism Book Review:

Focusing on the phenomenon of terrorism in the post-9/11 era, Terrorism and Counterterrorism investigates this form of political violence in an international and American context and in light of new and historical trends.In this comprehensive and highly readable text, Brigitte Nacos, a renowned expert in the field, clearly defines terrorism's diverse causes, actors, and strategies, outlines anti- and counter-terrorist responses, and highlights terrorism's relationship with the media and the public. Terrorism and Counterterrorism introduces students to the field's main debates and helps them critically assess our understanding of and our strategies for this complex and enduring issue.

Critical Terrorism Studies at Ten

Critical Terrorism Studies at Ten
  • Author : Richard Jackson,Harmonie Toros,Lee Jarvis,Charlotte Heath-Kelly
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Pages : 194
  • Relase : 2020-04-28
  • ISBN : 9780429846922

Critical Terrorism Studies at Ten Book Review:

Critical Terrorism Studies emerged around 2007, in the context of the rapidly intensifying War on Terror. It was in this era that "terrorism" became a "growth industry" which generated a huge amount of academic research as well as social and political activity. Yet a yawning gap developed between the actual material threat posed by terrorists, and the level of investment and activity devoted to responding to this threat. Similarly, the quality of terrorism research was noticeably weak and lacking in methodological rigour. Critical Terrorism Studies set out to explore the exceptional treatment of political violence, to challenge the political manipulation of terrorism fears and increase in draconian anti-terrorism legislation, and to address some of the conceptual and methodological failings of terrorism research. In the 10 years since the journal Critical Studies on Terrorism was launched, that context and mission remains as important as ever. This volume looks back on the achievements and failures of Critical Terrorism Studies in this period, as well as collecting state of the art research into terrorism discourse, queerness and the War on Terror, the Prevent Strategy, epistemology in terrorism studies, state repression, the ambiguous ends of militant campaigns, the epistemology of preventative counterterrorism, and the question of non-violent responses to terror. The chapters originally published in a special issue in Critical Studies in Terrorism.

Routledge Handbook of Critical Terrorism Studies

Routledge Handbook of Critical Terrorism Studies
  • Author : Richard Jackson
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Pages : 328
  • Relase : 2016-04-14
  • ISBN : 9781317801627

Routledge Handbook of Critical Terrorism Studies Book Review:

This new handbook is a comprehensive collection of cutting-edge essays that investigate the contribution of Critical Terrorism Studies to our understanding of contemporary terrorism and counterterrorism. Terrorism remains one of the most important security and political issues of our time. After 9/11, Critical Terrorism Studies (CTS) emerged as an alternative approach to the mainstream study of terrorism and counterterrorism, one which combined innovative methods with a searching critique of the abuses of the war on terror. This volume explores the unique contribution of CTS to our understanding of contemporary non-state violence and the state’s response to it. It draws together contributions from key thinkers in the field who explore critical questions around the nature and study of terrorism, the causes of terrorism, state terrorism, responses to terrorism, the war on terror, and emerging issues in terrorism research. Covering a wide range of topics including key debates in the field and emerging issues, the Routledge Handbook of Critical Terrorism Studies will set a benchmark for future research on terrorism and the response to it. This handbook will be of great interest to students of terrorism studies, political violence, critical security studies and IR in general.

Examining Political Violence

Examining Political Violence
  • Author : David Lowe,Austin T. Turk,Dilip K. Das
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Pages : 408
  • Relase : 2013-12-13
  • ISBN : 9781466588219

Examining Political Violence Book Review:

Security is undermined worldwide from political dissident activity and acts of terrorism targeted at innocent victims with no relation to the offenders. This political violence and terrorism plagues all continents and does not originate solely from jihadist groups. With a view towards developing more effective measures of prevention and resolution, Examining Political Violence: Studies of Terrorism, Counterterrorism, and Internal War examines political violence in various national and international settings. A collection of works, some previously published as articles in the journal Police Practice and Research, the book provides both conceptual analysis and case studies, exploring historical and sociopolitical contexts of conflicts in order to help readers better understand these themes. Divided into three parts, the book begins by defining the concepts of terrorism and radicalization. It discusses countering terrorism through intelligence gathering, examines how a multiagency approach is necessary to be prepared for terrorist acts, and examines different policing models. It discusses the experiences of policing agencies’ investigations into terrorist groups, and examines the targeting of police officers by terrorist groups. Specifying the historical and sociopolitical contexts of conflicts is essential for understanding these themes. Control policies must be grounded in empirical realities, not ideological preferences or aversions. Bringing together theoretical concepts examined through operational and empirical findings, the book is written by academics researching the areas as well as practitioners working in the fields of counterterrorism and political violence. The conclusions drawn from these findings may assist in combating terrorism and political violence around the world.

Evaluating Counterterrorism Performance

Evaluating Counterterrorism Performance
  • Author : Beatrice de Graaf
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Pages : 376
  • Relase : 2011-03-15
  • ISBN : 9781136806551

Evaluating Counterterrorism Performance Book Review:

This book offers a new model for measuring the success and impact of counterterrorism strategies, using four comparative historical case studies. The effectiveness of counterterrorism measures is hard to assess, especially since the social impact of terrorist attacks is a fundamental and complex issue. This book focuses on the impact of counterterrorist measures by introducing the concept of the performative power of counterterrorism: the extent to which governments mobilize public and political support - thereby sometimes even unwittingly assisting terrorists in creating social drama. The concept is applied to counterterrorism in the Netherlands, Italy, the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States in the 1970s. Based on in-depth case study research using new primary sources and interviews with counterterrorist officials and radicals, a correlation is established between a low level of performative power and a decline of terrorist incidents. This is explored in terms of the link between social drama (as enhanced by counterterrorist measures) and ongoing radicalization processes. This book demonstrates that an increase in visible and intrusive counterterrorist measures does not automatically lead to a more effective form of counterterrorism. In the open democracies of the west, not transforming counterterrorism into a performance of power and repression is at least as important as counterterrorism measures themselves. This book will be of much interest to students of terrorism and counter-terrorism, discourse analysis, media and communication studies, conflict studies and IR/Security Studies in general.

Terrorism Studies

Terrorism Studies
  • Author : John Horgan
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Pages : 504
  • Relase : 2011
  • ISBN : 9780415455046

Terrorism Studies Book Review:

"In an age when there is more written about terrorism than anyone can possibly read in a lifetime, it has become increasingly difficult for students and scholars to navigate the literature. At the same time, courses and modules on terrorism studies are developing at a rapid rate. To meet this challenge, this comprehensive new Reader in Terrorism Studies seeks to equip the aspiring student, based anywhere in the world, with a comprehensive introduction to the study of terrorism. Containing many of the most influential and groundbreaking studies from the worlds leading authorities on terrorism, drawn from several disciplines, and edited by one of the worlds leading experts, John Horgan, this book is the essential companion for the student of terrorism and political violence.Terrorism Studies, which starts with a detailed Introduction on 'Studying Terrorism', is divided into nine sub-sections, each of which has an introduction and guide to further reading. It will be essential reading for undergraduate students of terrorism and political violence, and recommended reading for students of security studies, international relations and political science in general"--

Routledge Handbook of Terrorism and Counterterrorism

Routledge Handbook of Terrorism and Counterterrorism
  • Author : Andrew Silke
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Pages : 668
  • Relase : 2018-09-03
  • ISBN : 9781317592709

Routledge Handbook of Terrorism and Counterterrorism Book Review:

This new Handbook provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art overview of current knowledge and debates on terrorism and counterterrorism, as well as providing a benchmark for future research. The attacks of 9/11 and the ‘global war on terror’ and its various legacies have dominated international politics in the opening decades of the 21st century. In response to the dramatic rise of terrorism, within the public eye and the academic world, the need for an accessible and comprehensive overview of these controversial issues remains profound. The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism and Counterterrorism seeks to fulfil this need. The volume is divided into two key parts: Part I: Terrorism: This section provides an overview of terrorism, covering the history of terrorism, its causes and characteristics, major tactics and strategies, major trends and critical contemporary issues such as radicalisation and cyber-terrorism. It concludes with a series of detailed case studies, including the IRA, Hamas and Islamic State. Part II: Counterterrorism: This part draws on the main themes and critical issues surrounding counterterrorism. It covers the major strategies and policies, key events and trends and the impact and effectiveness of different approaches. This section also concludes with a series of case studies focused on major counterterrorism campaigns. This book will be of great interest to all students of terrorism and counterterrorism, political violence, counter-insurgency, criminology, war and conflict studies, security studies and IR more generally.

Mapping Terrorism Research

Mapping Terrorism Research
  • Author : Magnus Ranstorp
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Pages : 352
  • Relase : 2006-11-22
  • ISBN : 9781134147731

Mapping Terrorism Research Book Review:

Containing essays by an array of top international scholars, this new book provides a comprehensive analytical critique of the current state of research in the terrorism and counterterrorism studies field, what it has substantively achieved over the years and where it should be heading in the future. Offering an overall examination of research achievements and gaps in scholarly efforts towards understanding terrorism as a complex behavioural and social phenomenon, it also assesses various research approaches into counterterrorism studies, clearly identifying a pathway for prioritized future research agendas in the field. This future research agenda is further enhanced by the provision of an appendix containing 444 identified research topics developed by the United Nations Terrorism Prevention Branch. Mapping Terrorism Research builds a cohesive, interdisciplinary and high-quality research agenda in terrorism and counterterrorism for future generations of academic students, scholars as well as practitioners, and will appeal to students of terrorism studies, political science and international relations.

Handbook of Terrorism and Counter Terrorism Post 9/11

Handbook of Terrorism and Counter Terrorism Post 9/11
  • Author : David Martin Jones,Paul Schulte,Carl Ungerer,M.L.R. Smith
  • Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
  • Pages : 456
  • Relase : 2019-12-27
  • ISBN : 9781786438027

Handbook of Terrorism and Counter Terrorism Post 9/11 Book Review:

Almost two decades after the events of 9/11, this Handbook offers a comprehensive insight into the evolution and development of terrorism and insurgency since then. Gathering contributions from a broad range of perspectives, it both identifies new technological developments in terrorism and insurgency, and addresses the distinct state responses to the threat of political, or religiously motivated violence; not only in the Middle East and Europe, but also in Africa, South and Southeast Asia, and North and South America.

A Critical Theory of Counterterrorism

A Critical Theory of Counterterrorism
  • Author : Sondre Lindahl
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Pages : 188
  • Relase : 2018-06-27
  • ISBN : 9781351121255

A Critical Theory of Counterterrorism Book Review:

This book offers a theory and model of counterterrorism based on emancipation and non-violence. Critical Terrorism Studies (CTS) scholars have produced wide-ranging and rich critiques of terrorism-related research, as well as state counterterrorism policies and practices. This work aims to fill in a gap in the current literature by constructing an original and specifically CTS model of counterterrorism. The model outlines the basic assumptions, priorities, principles, strategies and tactics, measures and evaluation of counterterrorism. It challenges prevalent models of counterterrorism through a radical rethinking of the ontology, epistemology and the agenda of counterterrorism. The model aims to prevent future acts of terrorism by (1) re-conceptualising how we study and understand terrorism, and; (2) suggesting that our efforts to counter and prevent terrorism must commensurate with the goals we want to achieve. Essentially, this involves a commitment to emancipation, and a rejection of violence as a tool. The second part of the book is a case study of Norwegian counterterrorism which shows how the theory and model developed in the book can be used. This is the first substantial analysis of Norwegian counterterrorism in almost ten years, and produces encouraging findings which support the potential for non-violent solutions to terrorism. This book will be of particular interest to students of terrorism and counterterrorism, critical security studies, and international relations in general.

Critical Perspectives on Counter-terrorism

Critical Perspectives on Counter-terrorism
  • Author : Lee Jarvis,Michael Lister
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Pages : 234
  • Relase : 2014-12-17
  • ISBN : 9781135077495

Critical Perspectives on Counter-terrorism Book Review:

This volume examines the rationale, effectiveness and consequences of counter terrorism practices from a range of perspectives and cases. The book critically interrogates contemporary counter-terrorism powers from military campaigns and repression through to the prosecution of terrorist suspects, counter-terrorism policing, counter-radicalisation programmes, and the proscription of terrorist organisations. Drawing on a range of timely and important case studies from around the world including the UK, Sri Lanka, Spain, Canada, Australia and the USA, its chapters explore the impacts of counter-terrorism on individuals, communities, and political processes. The book focuses on three questions of vital importance to any assessment of counter-terrorism. First, what do counter-terrorism strategies seek to achieve? Second, what are the consequences of different counter-terrorism campaigns, and how are these measured? And, third, how and why do changes to counter-terrorism occur? This volume will be of much interest to students of counter-terrorism, critical terrorism studies, criminology, security studies and IR in general.

Critical Terrorism Studies

Critical Terrorism Studies
  • Author : Richard Jackson,Marie Breen Smyth,Jeroen Gunning
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Pages : 288
  • Relase : 2009-02-05
  • ISBN : 9781134050512

Critical Terrorism Studies Book Review:

In response to the growth of a critical perspective on contemporary issues of terrorism, this edited volume brings together a number of leading scholars to debate the new subfield of 'critical terrorism studies'. In the years since the 9/11 attacks, terrorism studies has undergone a major transformation from minor subfield of security studies into a large stand-alone field, and is probably one of the fastest expanding areas of research in the Western academic world. However, much of the literature is beset by a number of problems, limiting its potential for producing rigorous empirical findings and genuine theoretical advancement. In response to these weaknesses in the broader field, a small but increasing number of scholars have begun to articulate a critical perspective on contemporary issues of terrorism. This volume brings together a number of leading scholars to debate the need for and the shape of this exciting new subfield.The first part of the volume examines some of the main shortcomings and limitations of orthodox terrorism studies, while the second examines exactly what a 'critical' terrorism studies would look like. Contributors from a variety of methodological and disciplinary perspectives give this volume diversity, and it will lay the foundations for, and provoke debate about, the future research agenda of this new field. This book will be of much interest to students of critical security studies, terrorism studies and IR theory in general. Richard Jackson is Reader in the Department of International Politics, Aberystwyth University, where he is also Senior Researcher at the Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Contemporary Political Violence (CSRV). He is the founding editor of the journal, Critical Studies on Terrorism. Marie Breen Smyth is Director of the Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Contemporary Political Violence (CSRV) at Aberystwyth University. She is a Reader in International Politics and co-editor of the journal, Critical Studies on Terrorism. Jeroen Gunning is Lecturer in International Politics at Aberystwyth University, Deputy Director of the Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Contemporary Political Violence and co-editor of the journal, Critical Studies on Terrorism.

The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research

The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research
  • Author : Alex P. Schmid
  • Publisher : Taylor & Francis
  • Pages : 736
  • Relase : 2011-02-25
  • ISBN : 9781136810404

The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research Book Review:

This major new Handbook synthesises more than two decades of scholarly research, and provides a comprehensive overview of the field of terrorism studies. The content of the Handbook is based on the responses to a questionnaire by nearly 100 experts from more than 20 countries as well as the specific expertise and experience of the volume editor and the various contributors. Together, they guide the reader through the voluminous literature on terrorism, and propose a new consensus definition of terrorism, based on an extensive review of existing conceptualisations. The work also features a large collection of typologies and surveys a wide range of theories of terrorism. Additional chapters survey terrorist databases and provide a guide to available resources on terrorism in libraries and on the Internet. It also includes the most comprehensive World Directory of Extremist, Terrorist and other Organizations associated with Guerrilla Warfare, Political Violence, Protest and Organized- and Cyber-Crime. The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research will be an essential work of reference for students and researchers of terrorism and political violence, security studies, criminology, political science and international relations, and of great interest to policymakers and professionals in the field of counter-terrorism.

Understanding Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism

Understanding Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism
  • Author : Rashmi Singh,Jorge Lasmar
  • Publisher :
  • Pages : 272
  • Relase : 2019-07-31
  • ISBN : 0415841372

Understanding Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism Book Review:

This new textbook seeks to fill a gap in the literature by providing an accessible overview of both terrorism and counter-terrorism. The book aims both to contextualise terrorism historically and to introduce students to the multiple concepts and debates that are necessary to formulate an accurate and holistic understanding of the field. At the same time, it also introduces them to the key mechanisms of and challenges faced in counter-terrorism. In all cases, the concepts and debates are empirically illustrated by examples of state and non-state terrorism from around the globe. To this end, the book is divided into three parts. Part I serves to introduce the students to the fundamental underpinnings of terrorism, and covers issues of definition, methodology and typology while also outlining key concepts that can be used to study the phenomenon. Part II covers nuts-and-bolt issues such as organisational structures, terrorist recruitment, financing and modus operandi, using examples and case studies to explain how different terrorist organisations are financed, structured and how this impacts the scope and nature of their operations. Part III is dedicated to responses to terrorism, and provides students with a brief history of counter-terrorism before moving on to address some key responses adopted by the state. In covering key aspects of both terrorism and counter-terrorism, this textbook underscores the simultaneous evolution of both phenomena and encourages students to view them as two sides of the same coin. It also places both in historical context and thereby challenges popular contemporary concpetions of terrorism as an Islamist phenomenon. This textbook will be essential reading for students of terrorism studies, political violence and counter-terrorism, and recommended for students of security studies, homeland security and IR in general.

US-UK Counter-Terrorism after 9/11

US-UK Counter-Terrorism after 9/11
  • Author : Edgar Tembo
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Pages : 168
  • Relase : 2014-01-10
  • ISBN : 9781136163500

US-UK Counter-Terrorism after 9/11 Book Review:

This book provides a qualitative analysis of post-9/11 counter-terrorism strategy undertaken by the United Kingdom and United States of America. Since 9/11, both the UK and the U.S have significantly revamped their counter-terrorism approaches. The approaches apply, to varying degrees, three key policy instruments – intelligence, law enforcement and military force. However, the success or failure of these counter-terrorism strategies has never been satisfactorily validated. Analysts and policymakers alike have assumed success due to the inability of terrorists to conduct 7/7 and 9/11, respectively, scale attacks upon each state. This assumption has existed despite the fact that it fundamentally underestimates the impact of transnational terrorism. This volume provides an in-depth qualitative assessment of the three primary policy instruments implemented to counter the transnational threat of terrorism during the period 2001-2011; an approach somewhat neglected by the current body of literature which focuses on a purely quantitative methodology. Drawing upon previously unpublished data collected from interviews with policymakers, specialists and academics, the book fills this lacuna by ascertaining and analysing both the UK’s and USA’s counter-terrorism strategies and developing a holistic approach to understanding these strategies. This book will be of interest to students of terrorism and counter-terrorism studies, security studies and IR in general.

Bringing Normativity into Critical Terrorism Studies

Bringing Normativity into Critical Terrorism Studies
  • Author : Alice Martini
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Pages : 154
  • Relase : 2020-12-17
  • ISBN : 9781000207026

Bringing Normativity into Critical Terrorism Studies Book Review:

This book explores and inquiries into the interrelation between normativity and Critical Terrorism Studies (CTS) from a wide range of critical views. The volume draws together authors with very different positions and understandings of normativity and policy-implementations in relation to countering terrorism, to offer the reader a wide range of perspectives and views on this topic. As such, the book is aimed at interrogating the concept of normativity in CTS from a wide range of theoretical angles but also at incorporating within the CTS’ agenda new debates and critiques. In its chapters, the book covers debates that go from more philosophical, theoretical, and ethical discussions to questions revolving around the importance and need of being policy-relevant for CTS scholars. All in all, this volume brings together chapters joining the debate on CTS’ main theoretical tenants and the role of critical scholars in counter-terrorism and prevention policies. Covering a broad spectrum of approaches and perspectives, authors in this book give different answers to central questions such as: how can we rethink CTS? What is the role of the critical terrorism studies community in countering terrorism? The chapters in this book were originally published in the journal, Critical Studies on Terrorism.

Terrorism and Counterterrorism in Canada

Terrorism and Counterterrorism in Canada
  • Author : Jez Littlewood,Lorne L. Dawson,Sara K. Thompson
  • Publisher : University of Toronto Press
  • Pages : 352
  • Relase : 2020-03-08
  • ISBN : 9781487521707

Terrorism and Counterterrorism in Canada Book Review:

Terrorism and Counterterrorism in Canada analyses the nature and scope of the terrorist threat, the challenge of Canadian foreign fighters and far-right extremism, key counterterrorism policies and practices, and their consequences for Canadian society.