Underground Engineering for Sustainable Urban Development

Underground Engineering for Sustainable Urban Development
  • Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Committee on Geological and Geotechnical Engineering,Committee on Underground Engineering for Sustainable Development
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Pages : 246
  • Relase : 2013-02-26
  • ISBN : 9780309278270

Underground Engineering for Sustainable Urban Development Book Review:

For thousands of years, the underground has provided humans refuge, useful resources, physical support for surface structures, and a place for spiritual or artistic expression. More recently, many urban services have been placed underground. Over this time, humans have rarely considered how underground space can contribute to or be engineered to maximize its contribution to the sustainability of society. As human activities begin to change the planet and population struggle to maintain satisfactory standards of living, placing new infrastructure and related facilities underground may be the most successful way to encourage or support the redirection of urban development into sustainable patterns. Well maintained, resilient, and adequately performing underground infrastructure, therefore, becomes an essential part of sustainability, but much remains to be learned about improving the sustainability of underground infrastructure itself. At the request of the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Research Council (NRC) conducted a study to consider sustainable underground development in the urban environment, to identify research needed to maximize opportunities for using underground space, and to enhance understanding among the public and technical communities of the role of underground engineering in urban sustainability. Underground Engineering for Sustainable Urban Development explains the findings of researchers and practitioners with expertise in geotechnical engineering, underground design and construction, trenchless technologies, risk assessment, visualization techniques for geotechnical applications, sustainable infrastructure development, life cycle assessment, infrastructure policy and planning, and fire prevention, safety and ventilation in the underground. This report is intended to inform a future research track and will be of interest to a broad audience including those in the private and public sectors engaged in urban and facility planning and design, underground construction, and safety and security.

North American Tunneling 2010 Proceedings

North American Tunneling 2010 Proceedings
  • Author : Lawrence R. Eckert,Matthew E. Fowler,Bradford F. Townsend,Michael F. Smithson, Jr.
  • Publisher : SME
  • Pages : 994
  • Relase : 2010
  • ISBN : 9780873353311

North American Tunneling 2010 Proceedings Book Review:

"Held June 20-23, 2010, at the Marriott Downtown Waterfront Hotel, Portland, Oregon"--Web site.

Sustainability Issues in Civil Engineering

Sustainability Issues in Civil Engineering
  • Author : G.L. Sivakumar Babu,Sireesh Saride,B. Munwar Basha
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Pages : 367
  • Relase : 2016-11-23
  • ISBN : 9789811019302

Sustainability Issues in Civil Engineering Book Review:

This compilation on sustainability issues in civil engineering comprises contributions from international experts who have been working in the area of sustainability in civil engineering. Many of the contributions have been presented as keynote lectures at the International Conference on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure (ICSCI) held in Hyderabad, India. The book has been divided into core themes of Sustainable Transportation Systems, Sustainable Geosystems, Sustainable Environmental and Water Resources and Sustainable Structural Systems. Use of sustainability principles in engineering has become an important component of the process of design and in this context, design and analysis approaches in civil engineering are being reexamined to incorporate the principles of sustainable designs and construction in practice. Developing economies are on the threshold of rapid infrastructure growth and there is a need to compile the developments in various branches of civil engineering and highlight the issues. It is this need that prompted the composition of this book. The contents of this book will be useful to students, professionals, and researchers working on sustainability related problems in civil engineering. The book also provides a perspective on sustainability for practicing civil engineers who are not directly researching the problems but are affected by the concerns in the course of their profession. The book can also serve to highlight to policy makers and governing bodies the need to have a mandate for sustainable infrastructural development.

Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground

Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground
  • Author : Mohammed Elshafie,Giulia Viggiani,Robert Mair
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Pages : 876
  • Relase : 2021-05-10
  • ISBN : 9781000421095

Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground Book Review:

Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground comprises a collection of 112 papers, four general reports on the symposium themes, the Fujita Lecture, three Special Lectures and the Bright Spark Lecture presented at the Tenth International Symposium on Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground, held in Cambridge, United Kingdom, 27-29 June 2022. The symposium is the latest in a series which began in New Delhi in 1994, and was followed by symposia in London (1996), Tokyo (1999), Toulouse (2002), Amsterdam (2005), Shanghai (2008), Rome (2011), Seoul (2014) and Sao Paulo (2017). This was organised by the Geotechnical Research Group at the University of Cambridge, under the auspices of the Technical Committee TC204 of the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (ISSMGE). Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground includes contributions from more than 25 countries on research, design and construction of underground works in soft ground. The contributions cover: Field case studies Sensing technologies and monitoring for underground construction in soft ground Physical and numerical modelling of tunnels and deep excavations in soft ground Seismic response of underground infrastructure in soft ground Design and application of ground improvement for underground construction Ground movements, interaction with existing structures and mitigation measures The general reports give an overview of the papers submitted to the symposium, covered in four technical sessions. The proceedings include the written version of the five invited lectures covering topics ranging from developments in geotechnical aspects of underground construction, tunnelling and groundwater interaction (short and long-term effects), the influence of earth pressure balance shield tunnelling on pre-convergence and segmental liner loading (field observations, modelling and implications on design). Similar to previous editions, Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground represents a valuable source of reference on the current practice of analysis, design, and construction of tunnels and deep excavations in soft ground. The book is particularly aimed at academics and professionals interested in geotechnical and underground engineering.

Underground Space Use. Analysis of the Past and Lessons for the Future, Two Volume Set

Underground Space Use. Analysis of the Past and Lessons for the Future, Two Volume Set
  • Author : Sören Erdem,Tülin Solak
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Pages : 1384
  • Relase : 2005-06-30
  • ISBN : 9780415889315

Underground Space Use. Analysis of the Past and Lessons for the Future, Two Volume Set Book Review:

The 200 papers in this two-volume set are a selection of work by tunnel experts from Europe, Asia, and the USA, and also showcase the work of the host nation, Turkey. As the title implies, the scope of the book is enormous, covering every aspect of tunnelling from contract management to safety. The book is of special interest to researchers, scient

Tunnels and Underground Cities. Engineering and Innovation Meet Archaeology, Architecture and Art

Tunnels and Underground Cities. Engineering and Innovation Meet Archaeology, Architecture and Art
  • Author : Daniele Peila,Giulia Viggiani,Tarcisio Celestino
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Pages : 384
  • Relase : 2019-04-17
  • ISBN : 9780429755026

Tunnels and Underground Cities. Engineering and Innovation Meet Archaeology, Architecture and Art Book Review:

Tunnels and Underground Cities: Engineering and Innovation meet Archaeology, Architecture and Art contains the contributions presented at the World Tunnel Congress 2019 (Naples, Italy, 3-9 May 2019). The use of underground space is continuing to grow, due to global urbanization, public demand for efficient transportation, and energy saving, production and distribution. The growing need for space at ground level, along with its continuous value increase and the challenges of energy saving and achieving sustainable development objectives, demand greater and better use of the underground space to ensure that it supports sustainable, resilient and more liveable cities. This vision was the source of inspiration for the design of the logos of both the International (ITA) and Italian (SIG) Tunnelling Association. By placing key infrastructures underground – the black circle in the logos – it will be possible to preserve and enhance the quality of the space at ground level – the green line. In order to consider and value underground space usage together with human and social needs, engineers, architects, and artists will have to learn to collaborate and develop an interdisciplinary design approach that addresses functionality, safety, aesthetics and quality of life, and adaptability to future and varied functions. The 700 contributions cover a wide range of topics, from more traditional subjects connected to technical challenges of design and construction of underground works, with emphasis on innovation in tunneling engineering, to less conventional and archetypically Italian themes such as archaeology, architecture, and art. The book has the following main themes: Archaeology, Architecture and Art in underground construction; Environment sustainability in underground construction; Geological and geotechnical knowledge and requirements for project implementation; Ground improvement in underground constructions; Innovation in underground engineering, materials and equipment; Long and deep tunnels; Public communication and awareness; Risk management, contracts and financial aspects; Safety in underground construction; Strategic use of underground space for resilient cities; Urban tunnels. Tunnels and Underground Cities: Engineering and Innovation meet Archaeology, Architecture and Art is a valuable reference text for tunneling specialists, owners, engineers, architects and others involved in underground planning, design and building around the world, and for academics who are interested in underground constructions and geotechnics.

Finance for Sustainability in a Turbulent Economy

Finance for Sustainability in a Turbulent Economy
  • Author : Rafay, Abdul
  • Publisher : IGI Global
  • Pages : 322
  • Relase : 2022-06-24
  • ISBN : 9781668455821

Finance for Sustainability in a Turbulent Economy Book Review:

Climate change and the depletion of resources will have a long-lasting effect on the globe. Thus, it is essential that businesses and organizations across the world adopt financial practices and strategies that allow them to continue their service, limit emissions, and preserve resources. However, these practices are only made more difficult to adopt within the context of a turbulent economy. In this context, it is imperative to research financial strategies to protect the environment and support business resilience. Finance for Sustainability in a Turbulent Economy provides international financial strategies to achieve sustainable business practices within a turbulent economy. It highlights the importance of maintaining environmental health in a cost-effective way. Covering topics such as environmental finance, renewable energy frameworks, and social responsibility, this premier reference source is an essential resource for environmental scientists, government officials, engineers, business executives, environmentalists, politicians, students and educators of higher education, researchers, and academicians.

Water and Sustainability in Arid Regions

Water and Sustainability in Arid Regions
  • Author : Graciela Schneier-Madanes,Marie-Francoise Courel
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Pages : 349
  • Relase : 2009-12-01
  • ISBN : 9789048127764

Water and Sustainability in Arid Regions Book Review:

International voices fill the pages of Water and Sustainability in Arid Regions, forming an original scientific exploration of current water research and management issues. In arid regions, agriculture that is ill-adapted to the environment, accelerated urbanization, poverty, and increasing pollution challenge access to and uses of water. Understanding these issues requires incorporating findings from both the physical and social sciences at different temporal and spatial scales. The chapters in this book were written by hydrologists, remote sensing specialists, ecologists, historians, economists, political scientists, architects, archaeologists, and other experts who live in and study arid lands. The authors present updates, overviews, and analyses of water challenges these areas have faced and are striving to address, from salinization in the fabled Taklimakan Desert in China to land degradation in the northern Mediterranean to groundwater over-exploitation in the southwestern United States. The book also examines desertification, remote sensing, qanat systems, architecture, arsenic contamination, and other case studies from Iran, the Maghreb region, Argentina and Chile, and Mexico. From this conceptual mosaic of comparative perspectives and research methods emerges a strong assumption: an interdisciplinary approach that combines physical and social sciences is the first step toward globally and comprehensively addressing water and sustainability."This book is a valuable and welcome contribution to the discussion of water and sustainable development. Through the collection of chapters, the book clearly illustrates the contemporary diversity of approaches to water scarcity and presents pertinent and new research findings that readers generally do not find compiled together. The result is a highly relevant, accessible, and timely resource that is unique in its international and interdisciplinary content. This is a must-read for anyone working on environmental and sustainability issues in arid lands."André Mariotti, University Pierre et Marie Curie, and INSU - CNRS (National Institute for Earth Sciences and Astronomy-National Center for Scientific Research/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique), France "Anyone who reads this book will find himself or herself contemplating the need to rethink how we approach the issue of water and sustainability in arid lands. Drawing on the expertise of both physical and social scientists, the chapters taken as a whole present global, historic, and current perspectives on water scarcity in a multi-layered way that rarely has been done before." Miguel Solanes, Madrid Water Institute, Spain

Renewable Energy and Sustainability

Renewable Energy and Sustainability
  • Author : Imran Khan
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Pages : 442
  • Relase : 2022-07-01
  • ISBN : 9780323884259

Renewable Energy and Sustainability Book Review:

Renewable Electricity and Sustainability: Prospects in Developing Economies is the first book of its kind to be dedicated entirely to the needs of emerging economies. It provides readers with a comprehensive review of current renewable energy technologies, their status in emerging economies, and the potential for sustainable renewable electricity generation in those countries. A multidisciplinary approach is used to assess the needs and challenges of each region, which is supported by quantitative analyses of the current and future potential for renewable electricity generation. Real-world examples are also provided from the respective electricity sectors of each region. This resource is a unique reference for graduates and researchers on the social, technical and economic landscape of renewable energy in emerging economies and would also be useful to NGO’s and policymakers in developing countries or those working in sustainable development. Focuses specifically on the renewable energy and sustainability needs of developing economies Explores the renewable energy potential of developing countries and how this can be converted to sustainable electricity generation, supported by quantitative analyses and real-world case studies Addresses energy efficiency, energy management and the socioeconomic aspects of renewable electricity generation in developing countries, in addition to each renewable energy resource

Fundamentals of Sustainability in Civil Engineering

Fundamentals of Sustainability in Civil Engineering
  • Author : Andrew Braham,Sadie Casillas
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Pages : 256
  • Relase : 2020-12-20
  • ISBN : 9781000298727

Fundamentals of Sustainability in Civil Engineering Book Review:

This book provides a foundation to understand the development of sustainability in civil engineering, and tools to address the three pillars of sustainability: economics, environment, and society. It includes case studies in the five major areas of civil engineering: environmental, structural, geotechnical, transportation, and construction management. This second edition is updated throughout and adds new chapters on construction engineering as well as an overview of the most common certification programs that revolve around environmental sustainability. Features: Updated throughout and adds two entirely new chapters Presents a review of the most common certification programs in sustainability Offers a blend of numerical and writing-based problems, as well as numerous application-based examples that utilize concepts found on the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) exam Includes several practical case studies Offers a solution manual for instructors Fundamentals of Sustainability in Civil Engineering is intended for upper-level civil engineering sustainability courses. A unique feature is that concepts found in the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) exam were targeted to help senior-level students refresh and prepare.

Food and Sustainability

Food and Sustainability
  • Author : Paul Behrens,David Ehrhardt,Thijs Bosker
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • Pages : 399
  • Relase : 2020
  • ISBN : 9780198814375

Food and Sustainability Book Review:

Food and Sustainability is the first text on this topic to consistently and coherently bring together important concepts from different disciplines to introduce students to a common challenge: food sustainability. The book explores the issues related to our growing demand for food from the perspectives of disciplines ranging from environmental and social sciences, to public health. It examines food as a point of convergence across these disciplines, illustrating the need for a transdisciplinary approach to understand common challenges and opportunities in food systems. The issues discussed are exemplified in several case studies for each chapter, which provide a direct avenue for students to apply the principles and theories set out in each chapter to real-world problems. In addition, 'Food controversy' panels highlight how there is very often no one right answer to the problems being faced, and how different viewpoints and perspectives need to be weighed up alongside each other to come to workable resolutions. Online resources: Food sustainability is augmented by a range of online resources, which include: For students: DT Hyperlinks to extended research readings DT Practice quizzes to support independent study DT Answers to in-text questions. For instructors: DT Downloadable (PowerPoint) figures from the book DT Answer sheets to the end of chapter questions DT Suggested exam questions.

Energy Security and Sustainability

Energy Security and Sustainability
  • Author : Amritanshu Shukla,Atul Sharma
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Pages : 430
  • Relase : 2016-10-03
  • ISBN : 9781498754446

Energy Security and Sustainability Book Review:

There has been ever increasing interest in understanding the various aspects of available resources and production, in terms of need and supply, conservation and environmental impacts and so on. From the current energy scenario, it is very clear that there are serious challenges related in achieving energy sustainability and security worldwide. The aim of this book is to present an overview of progress made towards energy sustainability addressing concerns regarding carbon emission and clean energy resources. Keeping this in mind, the book has chapters on all major energy sources which are being utilized at present, along with those having potential prospects for future.

Dictionary of 21st Century Energy Technologies, Financing and Sustainability

Dictionary of 21st Century Energy Technologies, Financing and Sustainability
  • Author : Gene Beck
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Pages : 426
  • Relase : 2021-01-08
  • ISBN : 9788770223171

Dictionary of 21st Century Energy Technologies, Financing and Sustainability Book Review:

This comprehensive desktop reference addresses the diverse terms and acronyms that form the backbone of 21st century energy technologies, applications of those technologies, and the sustainability sector of the U.S. economy. The convergence of these disciplines has resulted in an explosion of specialized terms, acronyms, and jargon. The references encompass a wide range of legacy as well as emerging renewable energy technologies including the finance and sustainable segments of business that form an integral part of those technologies. This dictionary gives professionals and laymen alike, across the multi-disciplinary fields of energy, a tool to better understand and communicate energy matters and understand the energy issues and opportunities faced. There are over 8,000 entries, making it the largest dictionary ever compiled on these specific subjects. Although the book includes some highly technical terms, the writing and explanations are sufficiently clear for both academia and practitioners including students, professors, architects, accountants, attorneys, engineers, public policy makers, regulators, developers, real estate professionals, debtors, borrowers, standards setting organizations, journalists, and boards of directors. The author has created this dictionary to help both novices and experts cut through the confusion and understand the vocabulary of this fast-growing field. This comprehensive body of knowledge explains these technologies and thousands of other new technical terms and acronyms. Three sectors—energy, efficiency, and sustainability—are at the heart of the economic low-carbon future growth of our economy. The result is a practical tool that should find a central place on the desk of anyone involved in energy, management, and development of sustainability issues anywhere in the world.

Bridge Safety, Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle, Resilience and Sustainability

Bridge Safety, Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle, Resilience and Sustainability
  • Author : Joan Ramon Casas,Dan M. Frangopol,Jose Turmo
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Pages : 2646
  • Relase : 2022-06-27
  • ISBN : 9781000798739

Bridge Safety, Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle, Resilience and Sustainability Book Review:

Bridge Safety, Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle, Resilience and Sustainability contains lectures and papers presented at the Eleventh International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management (IABMAS 2022, Barcelona, Spain, 11–15 July, 2022). This e-book contains the full papers of 322 contributions presented at IABMAS 2022, including the T.Y. Lin Lecture, 4 Keynote Lectures, and 317 technical papers from 36 countries all around the world. The contributions deal with the state-of-the-art as well as emerging concepts and innovative applications related to the main aspects of safety, maintenance, management, life-cycle, resilience, sustainability and technological innovations of bridges. Major topics include: advanced bridge design, construction and maintenance approaches, safety, reliability and risk evaluation, life-cycle management, life-cycle, resilience, sustainability, standardization, analytical models, bridge management systems, service life prediction, structural health monitoring, non-destructive testing and field testing, robustness and redundancy, durability enhancement, repair and rehabilitation, fatigue and corrosion, extreme loads, needs of bridge owners, whole life costing and investment for the future, financial planning and application of information and computer technology, big data analysis and artificial intelligence for bridges, among others. This volume provides both an up-to-date overview of the field of bridge engineering and significant contributions to the process of making more rational decisions on bridge safety, maintenance, management, life-cycle, resilience and sustainability of bridges for the purpose of enhancing the welfare of society. The volume serves as a valuable reference to all concerned with and/or involved in bridge structure and infrastructure systems, including students, researchers and practitioners from all areas of bridge engineering.

Sustainable Pipe Jacking Technology in the Urban Environment

Sustainable Pipe Jacking Technology in the Urban Environment
  • Author : Dominic Ek Leong Ong
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Pages :
  • Relase :
  • ISBN : 9789811693724

Sustainable Pipe Jacking Technology in the Urban Environment Book Review:

Tall Buildings

Tall Buildings
  • Author : Anonim
  • Publisher :
  • Pages :
  • Relase :
  • ISBN : 9789814478878

Tall Buildings Book Review:

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability 4/10

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability 4/10
  • Author : Daniel E. Vasey,Sarah E. Fredericks,Lei Shen,Shirley Thompson
  • Publisher : Berkshire Publishing Group
  • Pages : 543
  • Relase : 2011-12-08
  • ISBN : 9781933782546

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability 4/10 Book Review:

Natural Resources and Sustainability explores how human needs and desires, from sustenance and shelter to recreation and travel, have spurred the consumption of Earth's material resources. Scientists, ecologists, and other expert authors present the historical impact of commercial activities (in industries as varied as fisheries, agriculture, energy, and mineral extraction), discuss the global distribution and use of renewable and nonrenewable resources, and focus on innovative approaches for the future. Readers will learn why renewal doesn't necessarily put a resource beyond harm and why the no-free-lunch adage applies to all natural resources.

Life-Cycle of Engineering Systems: Emphasis on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure

Life-Cycle of Engineering Systems: Emphasis on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure
  • Author : Jaap Bakker,Dan M. Frangopol,Klaas van Breugel
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Pages : 438
  • Relase : 2016-11-18
  • ISBN : 9781498777018

Life-Cycle of Engineering Systems: Emphasis on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure Book Review:

This volume contains the papers presented at IALCCE2016, the fifth International Symposium on Life-Cycle Civil Engineering (IALCCE2016), to be held in Delft, The Netherlands, October 16-19, 2016. It consists of a book of extended abstracts and a DVD with full papers including the Fazlur R. Khan lecture, keynote lectures, and technical papers from all over the world. All major aspects of life-cycle engineering are addressed, with special focus on structural damage processes, life-cycle design, inspection, monitoring, assessment, maintenance and rehabilitation, life-cycle cost of structures and infrastructures, life-cycle performance of special structures, and life-cycle oriented computational tools. The aim of the editors is to provide a valuable source for anyone interested in life-cycle of civil infrastructure systems, including students, researchers and practitioners from all areas of engineering and industry.

Transportation and Geotechniques: Materials, Sustainability and Climate

Transportation and Geotechniques: Materials, Sustainability and Climate
  • Author : Manik Barman,Musharraf Zaman,Jia-Ruey Chang
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Pages : 188
  • Relase : 2018-07-11
  • ISBN : 9783319957685

Transportation and Geotechniques: Materials, Sustainability and Climate Book Review:

This book deals with the attempts made by the scientists, researchers and practitioners to address different emerging issues in transportation and geotechnical engineering. Papers focus on the following: (i) polymer-based dust suppressant,(ii) cement concrete materials, (iii) pavement preservation techniques, (iv) frost front in a cold-region circular tunnel, (v) metro station in non-cemented soil, (vi) seismic-liquefaction, (vii) mechanical responses of asphalt pavement at bridge approach, (viii) warm mix asphalt, and (ix) behavior of pile foundation. This volume is useful for the researchers and practitioners who work in the area transportation and geotechincal engineering. Papers were selected from the 5th GeoChina International Conference 2018 – Civil Infrastructures Confronting Severe Weathers and Climate Changes: From Failure to Sustainability, held on July 23 to 25, 2018 in HangZhou, China.

Introduction to Sustainability

Introduction to Sustainability
  • Author : Nolberto Munier
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Pages : 444
  • Relase : 2006-01-05
  • ISBN : 1402035578

Introduction to Sustainability Book Review:

Sustainability relates with Economics, Society, and Environment. However, one common fact that links them all is the generation of waste. This chapter is divided into two: The first part analyses the current generation of waste as well as its treatment. The second intends to establish policies for the future treatment of waste or, better yet, for ceasing the generation of waste. This first part begins by raising some capital questions: What is waste? Which are the components of waste? Where is waste generated? and How is waste treated? The second part will deal with: Why is waste produced? and What is society doing to correct this problem? 2. 2 First part: Current generation and treatment of waste 2. 2. 1 What is waste? The dictionary defines ‘waste’ as something useless, unwanted, or defective and the word ‘by-product’ as something produced in an industrial or biological process in addition to the principal product. From the point of view of sustainability, the word ‘waste’ does not have that meaning as, though it may be unwanted, it is not something useless and is certainly not defective. Even if in a manufacturing process a product or part of it does not conform to the manufacturer’s quality specs, it does not thereby become waste, but is, rather scrap material that is usually brought back to its original state and then processed again.