Support of Underground Excavations in Hard Rock

Support of Underground Excavations in Hard Rock
  • Author : E. Hoek,P.K. Kaiser,W.F. Bawden
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Pages : 300
  • Relase : 2000-01-01
  • ISBN : 9054101865

Support of Underground Excavations in Hard Rock Book Review:

The safe and economical construction of tunnels, mines, and other subterranean works depends on the correct choice of support systems to ensure that the excavations are stable. These support systems should be matched to the characterstics of the rock mass and the excavation techniques adopted. Establishing the support requirements, designing support systems and installing these correctly are essential elements in safe underground construction. This is a comprehensive and practical work which also gives access to user-friendly computer programmes which enable the investigation and design of support techniques. Details on how to obtain this software are also included in the book.

The Design and Support of Underground Excavations in Deep-level, Hard-rock Mines

The Design and Support of Underground Excavations in Deep-level, Hard-rock Mines
  • Author : John W. Wilson
  • Publisher :
  • Pages : 750
  • Relase : 1971
  • ISBN : PSU:000032728682

The Design and Support of Underground Excavations in Deep-level, Hard-rock Mines Book Review:

Underground Excavations in Rock

Underground Excavations in Rock
  • Author : Evert Hoek
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Pages :
  • Relase : 2017-08-25
  • ISBN : 1138473928

Underground Excavations in Rock Book Review:

Deals with the geotechnical aspects of the design of underground openings for mining and civil engineering processes.

Ground Mechanics in Hard Rock Mining

Ground Mechanics in Hard Rock Mining
  • Author : M.L. Jeremic
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Pages : 537
  • Relase : 2020-11-17
  • ISBN : 9781000108316

Ground Mechanics in Hard Rock Mining Book Review:

This book illustrates the advantages of the application of ground mechanic concepts to hard rock mining. It examines the ground stability for various mine layouts using specific case histories. The book deals with ground support, reinforcement, and stabilization of mining structures.

Rock Mass Stability Around Underground Excavations in a Mine

Rock Mass Stability Around Underground Excavations in a Mine
  • Author : Yan Xing,Pinnaduwa H.S.W. Kulatilake,Louis Sandbak
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Pages : 180
  • Relase : 2019-11-20
  • ISBN : 9781000698091

Rock Mass Stability Around Underground Excavations in a Mine Book Review:

Stability of underground excavations is of great importance to an operating mine because it ensures the safety of the working people and operating equipment, and successful ore production. Due to the complex geological conditions and mine constructions, and variability and uncertainty in estimating rock mass mechanical properties, the assessment of rock mass stability for an underground mine is extremely challenging and difficult. Tackling of this difficult problem is not covered in detail in any of the textbooks currently available in the rock mechanics literature. This monograph aims to cover this gap in the rock mechanics and rock engineering field. This monograph provides detailed procedures for the stability assessment and support design for an underground mine case study. It covers the background of the mine site including the monitored deformation data, the state-of-art methodologies for the stability analysis of rock masses around underground excavations, performed laboratory tests, estimation of the rock mass properties, a brief theory and background of the 3-D Distinct Element Code (3DEC), and numerical modeling of underground rock mass stability including investigation of the effectiveness of rock supports. The monograph is an excellent reference for the senior undergraduates, graduate students, researchers and practitioners who work in the Underground Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering area in the Mining Engineering, Civil Geotechnical Engineering and DEM (Distinct Element Method) Numerical modeling.

Support of Underground Excavations in Hard Rock

Support of Underground Excavations in Hard Rock
  • Author : consultant expert mohamed taha
  • Publisher :
  • Pages : 229
  • Relase : 2021-02-02
  • ISBN : 9798599518563

Support of Underground Excavations in Hard Rock Book Review:

Table of ContentsPreface............................................................................................. vForeword......................................................................................... vii1. An overview of rock support design........................................... 11.1 Introduction.................................................................. 11.2 Stages in mine development........................................... 1 1.2.1 Exploration and preliminary design................... 3 1.2.2 Mine design...................................................... 3 1.2.3 Early years of mining........................................ 4 1.2.4 Later years of mining........................................ 71.3 Support design.............................................................. 72. Assessing acceptable risks in design............................................ 82.1 Introduction.................................................................. 82.2 Factor of safety............................................................. 92.3 Sensitivity studies.......................................................... 102.4 The application of probability to design......................... 102.5 Probability of failure..................................................... 162.6 Problems to which probability cannot be applied............ 183. Evaluation of engineering geology data...................................... 203.1 Introduction.................................................................. 203.2 Engineering geological data collection........................... 203.3 Structural geological terms............................................ 213.4 Structural geological data collection.............................. 223.5 Structural geological data presentation.......................... 233.6 Geological data analysis................................................ 244. Rock mass classification.............................................................. 274.1 Introduction.................................................................. 274.2 Engineering rock mass classification.............................. 27 4.2.1 Terzaghi's rock mass classification..................... 28 4.2.2 Classifications involving stand-up time............... 29 4.2.3 Rock quality designation index (RQD)................ 30 4.2.4 Rock structure rating (RSR)............................... 314.3 Geomechanics classification.......................................... 344.4 Modifications to RMR for mining................................. 384.5 Rock tunnelling quality index, Q.................................... 394.6 Using rock mass classification systems.......................... 454.7 Estimation of in situ deformation modulus..................... 475. Shear strength of discontinuities................................................. 515.1 Introduction.................................................................. 515.2 Shear strength of planar surfaces................................... 51ii Support of underground excavations in hard rock5.3 Shear strength of rough surfaces.................................... 52 5.3.1 Field estimates of JRC....................................... 53 5.3.2 Field estimates of JCS....................................... 54 5.3.3 Influence of scale on JRC and JCS..................... 555.4 Shear strength of filled discontinuities........................... 565.5 Influence of water pressure............................................ 575.6 Instantaneous cohesion and friction............................... 576. Analysis of structurally controlled instability............................. 616.1 Introduction.......................................... 616.2 Identification of potential wedges........... 616.3 Support to control wedge failure............. 65 6.3.1 Rock bolting wedges............

Hard Rock Miner's Handbook

Hard Rock Miner's Handbook
  • Author : Jack De la Vergne
  • Publisher :
  • Pages : 314
  • Relase : 2008
  • ISBN : OCLC:1120452448

Hard Rock Miner's Handbook Book Review:

Rock Mechanics

Rock Mechanics
  • Author : Barry H.G. Brady,E.T. Brown
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Pages : 571
  • Relase : 2013-06-29
  • ISBN : 9789401581295

Rock Mechanics Book Review:

This new edition has been completely revised to reflect the notable innovations in mining engineering and the remarkable developments in the science of rock mechanics and the practice of rock angineering taht have taken place over the last two decades. Although "Rock Mechanics for Underground Mining" addresses many of the rock mechanics issues that arise in underground mining engineering, it is not a text exclusively for mining applications. Based on extensive professional research and teaching experience, this book will provide an authoratative and comprehensive text for final year undergraduates and commencing postgraduate stydents. For profesional practitioners, not only will it be of interests to mining and geological engineers, but also to civil engineers, structural mining geologists and geophysicists as a standard work for professional reference purposes.

Surface and Underground Excavations, 2nd Edition

Surface and Underground Excavations, 2nd Edition
  • Author : Ratan Raj Tatiya
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Pages : 904
  • Relase : 2013-05-13
  • ISBN : 9780415621199

Surface and Underground Excavations, 2nd Edition Book Review:

Surface and Underground Excavations – Methods, Techniques and Equipment (2nd edition) covers the latest technologies and developments in the excavation arena at any locale: surface or underground. In the first few chapters, unit operations are discussed and subsequently, excavation techniques are described for various operations: tunnelling, drifting, raising, sinking, stoping, quarrying, surface mining, liquidation and mass blasting as well as construction of large subsurface excavations such as caverns and underground chambers. The design, planning and development of excavations are treated in a separate chapter. Especially featured are methodologies to select stoping methods through incremental analysis. Furthermore, this edition encompasses comprehensive sections on mining at ‘ultra depths’, mining difficult deposits using non-conventional technologies, mineral inventory evaluation (ore – reserves estimation) and mine closure. Concerns over Occupational Health and Safety (OHS), environment and loss prevention, and sustainable development are also addressed in advocating a solution to succeed within a scenario of global competition and recession. This expanded second edition has been wholly revised, brought fully up-to-date and includes (wherever feasible) the latest trends and best practices, case studies, global surveys and toolkits as well as questions at the end of each chapter. This volume will now be even more appealing to students in earth sciences, geology, and in civil, mining and construction engineering, to practicing engineers and professionals in these disciplines as well as to all with a general or professional interest in surface and underground excavations.

Engineering Rock Mass Classification

Engineering Rock Mass Classification
  • Author : R K Goel,Bhawani Singh
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Pages : 384
  • Relase : 2011-08-09
  • ISBN : 0123858798

Engineering Rock Mass Classification Book Review:

Rock mass classification methods are commonly used at the preliminary design stages of a construction project when there is very little information. It forms the bases for design and estimation of the required amount and type of rock support and groundwater control measures. Encompassing nearly all aspects of rock mass classifications in detail, Civil Engineering Rock Mass Classification: Tunnelling, Foundations and Landsides provides construction engineers and managers with extensive practical knowledge which is time-tested in the projects in Himalaya and other parts of the world in complex geological conditions. Rock mass classification is an essential element of feasibility studies for any near surface construction project prior to any excavation or disturbances made to earth. Written by an author team with over 50 years of experience in some of the most difficult mining regions of the world, Civil Engineering Rock Mass Classification: Tunnelling, Foundations and Landsides provides construction engineers, construction managers and mining engineers with the tools and methods to gather geotechnical data, either from rock cuts, drifts or core, and process the information for subsequent analysis. The goal is to use effective mapping techniques to obtain data can be used as input for any of the established rock classification systems. The book covers all of the commonly used classification methods including: Barton’s Q and Q’ systems, Bieniawski’s RMR, Laubscher’s MRMR and Hoek’s and GSI systems. With this book in hand, engineers will be able to gather geotechnical data, either from rock cuts, drifts or core, and process the information for subsequent analysis. Rich with international case studies and worked out equations, the focus of the book is on the practical gathering information for purposes of analysis and design. Identify the most significant parameters influencing the behaviour of a rock mass Divide a particular rock mass formulation into groups of similar behaviour, rock mass classes of varying quality Provide a basis of understanding the characteristics of each rock mass class Relate the experience of rock conditions at one site to the conditions and experience encountered at others Derive quantitative data and guidelines for engineering design Provide common basis for communication between engineers and geologists

Rock Engineering

Rock Engineering
  • Author : Arild Palmström,Håkan Stille
  • Publisher : Inst of Civil Engineers Pub
  • Pages : 444
  • Relase : 2015
  • ISBN : 0727759957

Rock Engineering Book Review:

Stability Assessment for Underground Excavations and Key Construction Techniques

Stability Assessment for Underground Excavations and Key Construction Techniques
  • Author : Hanhua Zhu,Mengchong Chen,Yu Zhao,Fusheng Niu
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Pages : 157
  • Relase : 2016-11-01
  • ISBN : 9789811030116

Stability Assessment for Underground Excavations and Key Construction Techniques Book Review:

This book examines how the state of underground structures can be determined with the assistance of force, deformation and energy. It then analyzes mechanized shield methods, the New Austrian tunneling method (NATM) and conventional methods from this new perspective. The book gathers a wealth of cases reflecting the experiences of practitioners and administrators alike. Based on statistical and engineering studies of these cases, as well as lab and field experiments, it develops a stability assessment approach incorporating a stable equilibrium, which enables engineers to keep the structure and surrounding rocks safe as long as the stable equilibrium and deformation compliance are maintained. The book illustrates the implementation of the method in various tunneling contexts, including soil-rock mixed strata, tunneling beneath operating roads, underwater tunnels, and tunnel pit excavation. It offers a valuable guide for researchers, designers and engineers, especially those who are seeking to understand the underlying principles of underground excavation.

Underground Mining Methods

Underground Mining Methods
  • Author : William A. Hustrulid,W. A. Hustrulid,Richard C. Bullock
  • Publisher : SME
  • Pages : 718
  • Relase : 2001
  • ISBN : 9780873351935

Underground Mining Methods Book Review:

Underground Mining Methods: Engineering Fundamentals and International Case Studies presents the latest principles and techniques in use today. Reflecting the international and diverse nature of the industry, a series of mining case studies is presented covering the commodity range from iron ore to diamonds extracted by operations located in all corners of the world. Industry experts have contributed sections on General Mine Design Considerations; Room-and-Pillar Mining of Hard Rock/Soft Rock; Longwall Mining of Hard Rock; Shrinkage Stoping; Sublevel Stoping; Cut-and-Fill Mining; Sublevel Caving; Panel Caving; Foundations for Design; and Underground Mining Looks to the Future.

Rock Support in Mining and Underground Construction

Rock Support in Mining and Underground Construction
  • Author : P.K. Kaiser,D. McCreath
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Pages : 715
  • Relase : 1992-01-01
  • ISBN : 9054100443

Rock Support in Mining and Underground Construction Book Review:

An up-to-date record of the most recent developments and thinking in the methods, problems and challenges in the field of rock support, including cable bolting, shotcrete in mining, support in rockburst-prone ground, and support design, analysis and applications.

Estimating Rock Strength of Moderately Fractured EDZ in Hard Rock Tunnels

Estimating Rock Strength of Moderately Fractured EDZ in Hard Rock Tunnels
  • Author : Yun Lu,University of Alberta. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
  • Publisher :
  • Pages : 229
  • Relase : 2014
  • ISBN : OCLC:902540044

Estimating Rock Strength of Moderately Fractured EDZ in Hard Rock Tunnels Book Review:

Underground openings create various excavation-induced responses. The most noticeable response is the readily observed excavation damaged zone (EDZ) where the mechanical properties of the rock mass have been irreversibly altered, i.e., damaged. Within this damaged zone the stresses and displacements cannot be predicted using elastic theory. This damaged zone contains a region of reduced stresses and increased displacements and forms a rock mass ring that can contribute to the stability of the underground opening. This concept is well known and provided the stability of EDZ support ring is maintained, large underground excavations can be created at a great depth. However, predicting and quantifying the extent and properties of the rock mass mechanical damage that can occur in the EDZ has remained a challenge. The damage that occurs in the EDZ in typical strong rocks (ISRM Class R3 to R6) can be characterised as stress-induced and/or blast-induced fractures. These fractures can range from the millimetre to the metre scale. It is well known that the addition of cracks to a solid changes its mechanical properties and characteristics. Hence to quantify these changes both geometry and properties of the induced fractures must be known. Once these changes are quantified, the biggest challenge is translating these changes into rock mass mechanical properties. Recent developments with numerical methods have shown that discrete element modelling offers the most realistic methodology for estimating rock mass properties, provided the characteristics and geometry of the discrete fractures are known with confidence. The methodology, which has been termed as the Grain-based Model (GBM), can incorporate both intact blocks and discrete fractures. The GBM utilizes a voronoi tessellation scheme to simulate the microstructure of rocks by creating randomly composed blocks that are similar to the polygonal grains of intact rocks. The GBM can be calibrated to the conventional laboratory tests (UCS test, direct tension test and triaxial compression test) on intact rocks. It is shown that such calibration is not path dependent, i.e., calibrating to the direct tensile strength is able to predict the compressive strength. Once the GBM calibration with the intact properties was carried out, large-scale discrete fractures were added to the GBM to determine the effect of these fractures on the rock mass mechanical properties. To validate the GBM approach, several models were developed and the mechanical responses were compared to published results. The models increased in complexity from a single inclined fracture to two regular and uniformly spaced fracture sets. The responses from the GBM models were in good agreement with the results from the physical models. When the fractures are not uniformly spaced there is no simple means to establish the complex geometry of the fractures. At the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden, a unique experiment was carried out to establish the geometry of the excavation-induced and naturally occurring fractures found at the boundary of tunnel excavated by careful drill-and-blast technique. The fractures were measured at the mm scale. A methodology was developed to import the geometry of the fractures into the GBM. This model was then loaded to establish the mechanical properties. The results from the models were compared to the rock mass strength derived using the empirical Hoek-Brown failure criteria. The finding from the research demonstrates that the GBM and provides a reasonable approach to establish the rock mass strength at the tunnel scale. The methodology also provides an approach for establishing the effect of the blast-induced damage on the rock mass strength.

Rock Slope Engineering

Rock Slope Engineering
  • Author : Evert Hoek,Jonathan D. Bray
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Pages : 368
  • Relase : 1981-06-30
  • ISBN : 9780419160106

Rock Slope Engineering Book Review:

This classic handbook deals with the geotechnical problems of rock slope design. It has been written for the non-specialist mining or civil engineer, with worked examples, design charts, coverage of more detailed analytical methods, and of the collection and interpretation of geological and groundwater information and tests for the mechanical properties of rock.

Rock Mass Stability Around Underground Excavations in a Mine

Rock Mass Stability Around Underground Excavations in a Mine
  • Author : Yan Xing,Pinnaduwa H.S.W. Kulatilake,Louis Sandbak
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Pages : 196
  • Relase : 2019-11-20
  • ISBN : 9781000697971

Rock Mass Stability Around Underground Excavations in a Mine Book Review:

Stability of underground excavations is of great importance to an operating mine because it ensures the safety of the working people and operating equipment, and successful ore production. Due to the complex geological conditions and mine constructions, and variability and uncertainty in estimating rock mass mechanical properties, the assessment of rock mass stability for an underground mine is extremely challenging and difficult. Tackling of this difficult problem is not covered in detail in any of the textbooks currently available in the rock mechanics literature. This monograph aims to cover this gap in the rock mechanics and rock engineering field. This monograph provides detailed procedures for the stability assessment and support design for an underground mine case study. It covers the background of the mine site including the monitored deformation data, the state-of-art methodologies for the stability analysis of rock masses around underground excavations, performed laboratory tests, estimation of the rock mass properties, a brief theory and background of the 3-D Distinct Element Code (3DEC), and numerical modeling of underground rock mass stability including investigation of the effectiveness of rock supports. The monograph is an excellent reference for the senior undergraduates, graduate students, researchers and practitioners who work in the Underground Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering area in the Mining Engineering, Civil Geotechnical Engineering and DEM (Distinct Element Method) Numerical modeling.

Rock Mass Stability Around Underground Excavations in a Mine

Rock Mass Stability Around Underground Excavations in a Mine
  • Author : Yan Xing,Pinnaduwa Kulatilake,Louis Sandbak
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Pages : 196
  • Relase : 2021-06-30
  • ISBN : 1032084316

Rock Mass Stability Around Underground Excavations in a Mine Book Review:

This monograph provides detailed procedures for the stability assessment and support design for an underground mine case study. It is an excellent reference for the senior undergraduates, graduate students, researchers and practitioners.

Stability Analysis and Modelling of Underground Excavations in Fractured Rocks

Stability Analysis and Modelling of Underground Excavations in Fractured Rocks
  • Author : Jian Zhao,Weishen Zhu
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Pages : 308
  • Relase : 2003-12-18
  • ISBN : 0080541631

Stability Analysis and Modelling of Underground Excavations in Fractured Rocks Book Review:

Provides practical solutions to the challenge of modeling and analyzing rock masses Consolidates a wealth of previously published technical papers on the subject and introduces previously unseen material This authoritative title is a key reference for any Geo-engineer. Rock masses differ considerably from man-made materials, and their properties can vary with location, direction and time. As a result there is a critical need to capture these variations via modeling and analysis. Zhu and Zhao provide an expert introduction to the techniques and analytical methods needed for studying underground excavations in fractured rock masses. The book brings together previously published and new material to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date reference. Provides practical solutions to the challenge of modeling and analyzing rock masses Consolidates a wealth of previously published technical papers on the subject and introduces previously unseen material

Management of Squeezing Ground Conditions in Hard Rock Mines

Management of Squeezing Ground Conditions in Hard Rock Mines
  • Author : Efstratios Karampinos
  • Publisher :
  • Pages :
  • Relase : 2016
  • ISBN : OCLC:1333978307

Management of Squeezing Ground Conditions in Hard Rock Mines Book Review:

Squeezing ground conditions can result in large scale deformation and instability of underground excavations in rock. In hard rock mines, squeezing ground conditions are often associated with the presence of dominant foliation and high stress with resulting deformation often exceeding the capacity of installed ground support. This can result in failure of ground support making the excavations non-operational. This thesis is a contribution to improved understanding of structurally defined squeezing mechanisms observed in underground hard rock mines. A comprehensive field campaign was undertaken in two mines where squeezing was a major ground control issue. This has allowed the development of a database comprised of 147 squeezing case studies. Reported information included drift configuration and orientation, deformation monitoring, rock mass characterization and the performance of ground support. The data were reviewed to identify the failure mechanisms and to quantify the influence of ground conditions, excavation orientation, and the performance of different support strategies. The distinct element method (DEM) was used to successfully reproduce the buckling mechanism resulting in squeezing and large deformations observed in mining drifts in the database. The developed methodology was implemented in 3D models and explicitly considered the role of foliation. Subsequently, a comprehensive strategy for explicitly modeling rock reinforcement using the DEM was developed and implemented in a series of 3D numerical models. The models were calibrated based on field testing of reinforcement and observations at the LaRonde Mine. They were used to investigate the impact of different reinforcement strategies and the time of installation of the support. The numerical results were in agreement with the field observations and demonstrated the practical implications of using yielding reinforcement elements. This was supported by field data where the use of yielding bolts reduced the drift convergence and rehabilitation. An analysis and interpretation of the field data and the numerical modelling investigations were used to provide tools for the assessment and mitigation of the anticipated deformation in squeezing ground. The developed strategies can be used to select optimal reinforcement options. The developed tools and procedures can be successfully used to manage large structurally controlled deformations in underground hard rock mines.