Ships Clocks And Stars The Quest For Longitude
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- Author : Richard Dunn,Rebekah Higgitt
- Publisher : Harper Collins
- Pages : 256
- Relase : 2014-11-04
- ISBN : 9780062357175
A tale of eighteenth-century invention and competition, commerce and conflict, this is a lively, illustrated, and accurate chronicle of the search to solve “the longitude problem,” the question of how to determine a ship’s position at sea—and one that changed the history of mankind. Ships, Clocks, and Stars brings into focus one of our greatest scientific stories: the search to accurately measure a ship’s position at sea. The incredible, illustrated volume reveals why longitude mattered to seafaring nations, illuminates the various solutions that were proposed and tested, and explores the invention that revolutionized human history and the man behind it, John Harrison. Here, too, are the voyages of Captain Cook that put these revolutionary navigational methods to the test. Filled with astronomers, inventors, politicians, seamen, and satirists, Ships, Clocks, and Stars explores the scientific, political, and commercial battles of the age, as well as the sailors, ships, and voyages that made it legend—from Matthew Flinders and George Vancouver to the voyages of the Bounty and the Beagle. Featuring more than 150 photographs specially commissioned from Britain’s National Maritime Museum, this evocative, detailed, and thoroughly fascinating history brings this age of exploration and enlightenment vividly to life.
- Author : Richard Dunn,Rebekah Higgitt,National maritime museum (Londres).
- Publisher :
- Pages : 255
- Relase :
- ISBN : 0007940521
- Author : Richard Dunn,National Maritime Museum (Great Britain),Rebekah Higgitt,Royal Museums Greenwich
- Publisher :
- Pages : 255
- Relase : 2014
- ISBN : 0007525869
300 years ago, amidst growing frustration from the naval community and pressure from the increasing importance of international trade, the British government passed the 1714 Longitude Act. It was an attempt to solve one of the most pressing problems of the age: how to determine a ship's longitude (east-west position) at sea. With life-changing rewards on offer, the challenge captured the imaginations and talents of astronomers, skilled craftsmen, politicians, seamen and satirists. This illustrated book is a detailed account of these stories, and how the longitude problem was solved.
- Author : National Maritime Museum,Dunn,Rebekah Higgitt
- Publisher : HarperCollins UK
- Pages : 256
- Relase : 2014-07-10
- ISBN : 9780007525874
Recommended for viewing on colour device. Official publication of the National Maritime Museum's “Ships, Clocks and Stars” exhibition.
- Author : Dava Sobel
- Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing USA
- Pages : 208
- Relase : 2010-07-05
- ISBN : 0802779433
The dramatic human story of an epic scientific quest and of one man's forty-year obsession to find a solution to the thorniest scientific dilemma of the day--"the longitude problem." Anyone alive in the eighteenth century would have known that "the longitude problem" was the thorniest scientific dilemma of the day-and had been for centuries. Lacking the ability to measure their longitude, sailors throughout the great ages of exploration had been literally lost at sea as soon as they lost sight of land. Thousands of lives and the increasing fortunes of nations hung on a resolution. One man, John Harrison, in complete opposition to the scientific community, dared to imagine a mechanical solution-a clock that would keep precise time at sea, something no clock had ever been able to do on land. Longitude is the dramatic human story of an epic scientific quest and of Harrison's forty-year obsession with building his perfect timekeeper, known today as the chronometer. Full of heroism and chicanery, it is also a fascinating brief history of astronomy, navigation, and clockmaking, and opens a new window on our world.
- Author : Rebekah Higgitt,Richard Dunn,Peter Jones
- Publisher : Springer
- Pages : 259
- Relase : 2016-02-19
- ISBN : 9781137520647
This book explores the development of navigation in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. It examines the role of men of science, seamen and practitioners across Europe, and the realities of navigational practice, showing that old and new methods were complementary not exclusive, their use dependent on many competing factors.
- Author : Andrew Lyall
- Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
- Pages : 448
- Relase : 2017-03-23
- ISBN : 9781509911226
The purpose of Granville Sharpe's Cases on Slavery is twofold: first, to publish previously unpublished legal materials principally in three important cases in the 18th century on the issue of slavery in England, and specifically the status of black people who were slaves in the American colonies or the West Indies and who were taken to England by their masters. The unpublished materials are mostly verbatim transcripts made by shorthand writers commissioned by Granville Sharp, one of the first Englishmen to take up the cause of the abolition of the slave trade and slavery itself. Other related unpublished material is also made available for the first time, including an opinion of an attorney general and some minor cases from the library of York Minster. On the slave ship Zong, there are transcripts of the original declaration, the deposition by the chief mate, James Kelsall and an extract from a manuscript that Professor Martin Dockray was working on before his untimely death. The second purpose, outlined in the Introduction, is to give a social and legal background to the cases and an analysis of the position in England of black servants/slaves brought to England and the legal effects of the cases, taking into account the new information provided by the transcripts. There was a conflict in legal authorities as to whether black servants remained slaves, or became free on arrival in England. Lord Mansfield, the chief justice of the court of King's Bench, was a central figure in all the cases and clearly struggled to come to terms with slavery. The material provides a basis for tracing the evolution of his thought on the subject. On the one hand, the huge profits from slave production in the West Indies flooded into England, slave owners had penetrated the leading institutions in England and the pro-slavery lobby was influential. On the other hand, English law had over time established rights and liberties which in the 18th century were seen by many as national characteristics. That tradition was bolstered by the ideas of the Enlightenment. By about the 1760s it had become clear that there was no property in the person, and by the 1770s that such servants could not be sent abroad without their consent, but whether they owed an obligation of perpetual service remained unresolved.
- Author : Anonim
- Publisher : BRILL
- Pages : 229
- Relase : 2021-12-28
- ISBN : 9789004501225
Spaces of Enlightenment Science explores the places, spaces, and exchanges where science of the Early Modern period got done, bringing together leading historians of science to examine the geographies of knowledge in the Enlightenment period.
- Author : Sheila Watson,Amy Jane Barnes,Katy Bunning
- Publisher : Routledge
- Pages : 902
- Relase : 2018-10-08
- ISBN : 9781317361305
Heritage’s revival as a respected academic subject has, in part, resulted from an increased awareness and understanding of indigenous rights and non-Western philosophies and practices, and a growing respect for the intangible. Heritage has, thus far, focused on management, tourism and the traditionally ‘heritage-minded’ disciplines, such as archaeology, geography, and social and cultural theory. Widening the scope of international heritage studies, A Museum Studies Approach to Heritage explores heritage through new areas of knowledge, including emotion and affect, the politics of dissent, migration, and intercultural and participatory dimensions of heritage. Drawing on a range of disciplines and the best from established sources, the book includes writing not typically recognised as 'heritage', but which, nevertheless, makes a valuable contribution to the debate about what heritage is, what it can do, and how it works and for whom. Including heritage perspectives from beyond the professional sphere, the book serves as a reminder that heritage is not just an academic concern, but a deeply felt and keenly valued public and private practice. This blending of traditional topics and emerging trends, established theory and concepts from other disciplines offers readers international views of the past and future of this growing field. A Museum Studies Approach to Heritage offers a wider, more current and more inclusive overview of issues and practices in heritage and its intersection with museums. As such, the book will be essential reading for postgraduate students of heritage and museum studies. It will also be of great interest to academics, practitioners and anyone else who is interested in how we conceptualise and use the past.
- Author : Charles W. J. Withers
- Publisher : Harvard University Press
- Pages : 336
- Relase : 2017-03-13
- ISBN : 9780674978959
Charles Withers explains how the choice of Greenwich to mark 0° longitude solved problems of global measurement that had engaged geographers, astronomers, and mariners since ancient times. This history is a testament to the power of maps, the challenges of global measurement, and the role of scientific authority in creating the modern world.
- Author : James A. Bennett
- Publisher : Oxford University Press
- Pages : 153
- Relase : 2017
- ISBN : 9780198733713
Looking at the long history of navigation at sea, Jim Bennett discusses the scientific and technological developments that have enabled the accurate measurement of position and setting of directions in the oceans.
- Author : Cornel Zwierlein
- Publisher : BRILL
- Pages : 454
- Relase : 2016-06-10
- ISBN : 9789004325180
Thoroughly researched contributions from conferences at Harvard and Paris on coping with ignorance in late medieval and early modern administrative practices, science, literature and the arts, are tightly connected by a new theoretical framework on how to historicize ignorance.
- Author : Jonathan Betts
- Publisher : Oxford University Press
- Pages : 848
- Relase : 2018-01-03
- ISBN : 9780191511172
The Marine Chronometers at Greenwich is the fifth, and largest, of the distinguished series of catalogues of instruments in the collections of the National Maritime Museum. Housed at the Royal Observatory Greenwich — the 'home of time' and the Prime Meridian of the world — this extraordinary collection, which includes the celebrated marine timekeepers by John Harrison (1693-1776), is generally considered to be the finest of its kind in existence. The book is however much more than just a catalogue, and includes an accessible and engaging history of the chronometer, revealing why these instruments were important in our scientific and cultural history, and explaining, in simple terms, how they worked and were used. A comprehensive Glossary and Bibliography are included to ensure any technicalities are explained and that the reader has suggestions for useful 'further reading'. Over 480 photographs and illustrations, including many fine macro-photographs and line drawings, illustrate the 'jewel-like' beauty of the chronometer's construction and explain the function and subtleties of its mechanism. A chapter on 'How the Chronometer was Made', describes the fine sub-division of labour used to create these special machines, from bare metal, right up to delivery on board ship, and brief biographies of the makers tell the human story behind this important nineteenth-century industry. Another chapter, 'The Evolution of the Chronometer', aimed at collectors, historians and curators, provides clearly structured information on assessing and dating the chronometer, something many find difficult. And, for the dedicated specialist, there is extensive tabulated data on the technical structure of this important collection, a unique resource for future research.
- Author : John McAleer,Nigel Rigby
- Publisher : Yale University Press
- Pages : 256
- Relase : 2017-01-01
- ISBN : 9780300207248
British Royal Navy Captain James Cook's voyages of exploration across and around the Pacific Ocean were a marvel of maritime achievement, and provided the first accurate map of the Pacific. The expeditions answered key scientific, economic, and geographic questions, and inspired some of the most influential images of the Pacific made by Europeans. Now readers can immerse themselves in the adventure through the collections of London's National Maritime Museum, which illuminate every aspect of the voyages: oil paintings of lush landscapes, scientific and navigational instruments, ship plans, globes, charts and maps, rare books and manuscripts, coins and medals, ethnographic material, and personal effects. Each artifact holds a story that sheds light on Captain Cook, the crews he commanded, and the effort's impact on world history. Showcasing one of the richest resources of Cook-related material in the world, this publication invites readers to engage with the extraordinary voyages--manifested in material culture--and their continuing significance today.
- Author : Claire Jowitt,Craig Lambert,Steve Mentz
- Publisher : Routledge
- Pages : 610
- Relase : 2020-05-21
- ISBN : 9781000075762
The Routledge Companion to Marine and Maritime Worlds, 1400‒1800 explores early modern maritime history, culture, and the current state of the research and approaches taken by experts in the field. Ranging from cartography to poetry and decorative design to naval warfare, the book shows how once-traditional and often Euro-chauvinistic depictions of oceanic ‘mastery’ during the early modern period have been replaced by newer global ideas. This comprehensive volume challenges underlying assumptions by balancing its assessment of the consequences and accomplishments of European navigators in the era of Columbus, da Gama, and Magellan, with an awareness of the sophistication and maritime expertise in Asia, the Arab world, and the Americas. By imparting riveting new stories and global perceptions of maritime history and culture, the contributors provide readers with fresh insights concerning early modern entanglements between humans and the vast, unpredictable ocean. With maritime studies growing and the ocean’s health in decline, this volume is essential reading for academics and students interested in the historicization of the ocean and the ways early modern cultures both conceptualized and utilized seas.
- Author : David Blakely
- Publisher : Troubador Publishing Ltd
- Pages : 168
- Relase : 2016-11-10
- ISBN : 9781785893308
Ships, Shawls and Loyal Service details the history of three 19th century brothers, each of whom saw some success in his chosen occupation, but each quite distinct from the others in what he achieved. Inspired by the extensive family tree drawn up in the early 20th century by one of his great-uncles, David Blakely relates the stories of his three ancestors. With strong roots in rural Suffolk, the three Blakely brothers were born at the end of the 18th century into a long-established family. Their ancestors had been gentlemen farmers, but none of the brothers followed that occupation. The eldest spent a year as a midshipman in the Royal Navy and six years as an officer in the Army, before becoming involved in a rural church community in north Norfolk. The second served as an officer on East India Company ships, sailing to India and China and finally being promoted to captain. The youngest brother lived in Norwich and became a well-respected retailer and manufacturer in the textile trade. Ships, Shawls and Loyal Service is a fascinating insight into the lives of three brothers, each of whom took a very different path in life. Early history of the brothers’ family is also explored, including their grandfather’s business as proprietor of a stage-coach company in Ipswich and his acquaintance with the artist Thomas Gainsborough. This book will appeal to those interested in East Anglian life and trade in the 18th and 19th centuries. Readers interested in naval and military actions in Napoleonic times and in sailing between England and the Far East will also find this a valuable account.
- Author : Alun C. Davies
- Publisher : Routledge
- Pages : 440
- Relase : 2022-04-08
- ISBN : 9781000571905
This survey of the rise and decline of English watchmaking fills a gap in the historiography of British industry. Clerkenwell in London was supplied with "rough movements" from Prescot, 200 miles away in Lancashire. Smaller watchmaking hubs later emerged in Coventry, Liverpool, and Birmingham. The English industry led European watchmaking in the late eighteenth century in output, and its lucrative export markets extended to the Ottoman Empire and China. It also made marine chronometers, the most complex of hand-crafted pre-industrial mechanisms, crucially important to the later hegemony of Britain’s navy and merchant marine. Although Britain was the "workshop of the world", its watchmaking industry declined. Why? Firstly, because cheap Swiss watches were smuggled into British markets. Later, in the era of Free Trade, they were joined by machine-made watches from factories in America, enabled by the successful application to watch production of the "American system" in Waltham, Massachusetts after 1858. The Swiss watch industry adapted itself appropriately, expanded, and reasserted its lead in the world’s markets. English watchmaking did not: its trajectory foreshadowed and was later followed by other once-prominent British industries. Clerkenwell retained its pre-industrial production methods. Other modernization attempts in Britain had limited success or failed.
- Author : Lauren Benton,Nathan Perl-Rosenthal
- Publisher : University of Pennsylvania Press
- Pages : 280
- Relase : 2020-10-09
- ISBN : 9780812297348
The past twenty-five years have brought a dramatic expansion of scholarship in maritime history, including new research on piracy, long-distance trade, and seafaring cultures. Yet maritime history still inhabits an isolated corner of world history, according to editors Lauren Benton and Nathan Perl-Rosenthal. Benton and Perl-Rosenthal urge historians to place the relationship between maritime and terrestrial processes at the center of the field and to analyze the links between global maritime practices and major transformations in world history. A World at Sea consists of nine original essays that sharpen and expand our understanding of practices and processes across the land-sea divide and the way they influenced global change. The first section highlights the regulatory order of the seas as shaped by strategies of land-based polities and their agents and by conflicts at sea. The second section studies documentary practices that aggregated and conveyed information about sea voyages and encounters, and it traces the wide-ranging impact of the explosion of new information about the maritime world. Probing the political symbolism of the land-sea divide as a threshold of power, the last section features essays that examine the relationship between littoral geographies and sociolegal practices spanning land and sea. Maritime history, the contributors show, matters because the oceans were key sites of experimentation, innovation, and disruption that reflected and sparked wide-ranging global change. Contributors: Lauren Benton, Adam Clulow, Xing Hang, David Igler, Jeppe Mulich, Lisa Norling, Nathan Perl-Rosenthal, Carla Rahn Phillips, Catherine Phipps, Matthew Raffety, Margaret Schotte.
- Author : Louisiane Ferlier,Benedicte Miyamoto
- Publisher : BRILL
- Pages : 311
- Relase : 2020-07-27
- ISBN : 9789004433670
Forms, Formats and the Circulation of Knowledge explores the authority of print in all its shapes in the British book trade (1688-1832). The transdisciplinary volume skilfully recovers the innovations and practices of a disorderly market accommodating a widening audience.
- Author : Jane Desborough
- Publisher : Springer
- Pages : 292
- Relase : 2019-03-27
- ISBN : 9783030153533
This book provides a reinterpretation of early modern clock and watch dials on the basis of use. Between 1550 and the emergence of a standard format in 1770, dials represented combinations of calendrical, lunar and astronomical information using multiple concentric rings, subsidiary dials and apertures. Change was gradual, but significant. Over the course of eight chapters and with reference to thirty-five exceptional images, this book unlocks the meaning embedded within these early combinations. The true significance of dial change can only be fully understood by comparing dials with printed paper sources such as almanacs, diagrams and craft pamphlets. Clock and watch makers drew on traditional communication methods, utilised different formats to generate trust in their work, and tried to be help users in different contexts. The calendar, lunar and astronomical functions were useful as a memory prompt for astrology up until the mid-late seventeenth century. After the decline of this practice, the three functions continued to be useful for other purposes, but eventually declined.